Researchers from the University of Washington in Seattle randomly assigned 37 adults with spinal-cord injury and chronic pain to receive 10 sessions of self-hypnosis (HYP) or EMG biofeedback relaxation (BIO) training for pain management. Participants in both treatment conditions reported substantial, but similar, decreases in pain intensity from before to after the treatment sessions.
However, participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, reported statistically significant decreases in daily average pain pre- to post-treatment. These pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain reported by the HYP participants were maintained at 3-month follow-up.
Participants in the HYP condition, but not the BIO condition, also reported significant pre- to posttreatment increases in perceived control over pain, but this change was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up.