Researchers from Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center conducted a pilot study - a randomized trial - to examine the efficacy of a program called Pay Attention!, with children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Pay Attention! is a training program to teach sustained attention: selective, alternating and divided attention.
After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to either receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or assigned to a waitlist control group (n=51).
Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation.
Results showed significant treatment effects from parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, as well as the child’s self-reporting of his or her ability to focus, and the parents’ ratings of executive functioning.
Researchers from the Royal Jubilee Maternity Hospital and The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, conducted a literature review of studies in the efficacy of hypnosis for the treatment of severe, pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (hyperemesis gravidarum).
They searched databases from Cochrane, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and Web of Knowledge databases. A total of 45 studies were identified, and, of those, six fulfilled the inclusion criteria.
Studies were reviewed for study design, methodological quality, intervention and outcomes. Methodology between the studies differed but all reported encouraging positive outcomes.
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore investigated the efficacy of adding qigong to a residential treatment program for substance abuse.
Qigong, which blends relaxation, breathing, guided imagery, inward attention, and mindfulness to elicit a tranquil, healing state, was introduced into a short-term residential treatment program. At first clients chose to participate in qigong meditation on a voluntary basis during their evening break. Later they chose to participate in either meditation or Stress Management and Relaxation Training (SMART) twice a day as part of the scheduled treatment.
Weekly questionnaires were completed by 248 participants for up to 4 weeks, to assess changes in treatment outcomes. Participants in the meditation group were also assessed for quality of meditation to evaluate the association between quality and treatment outcome.
Researchers from the Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University in Falun, Sweden studied affective reactions (shifts in mood, emotional state) to Qigong. In the past, single sessions have been associated with increased positive affect/emotional benefits.
The study used a new, modified version of the short Swedish Core Affect Scale, complemented by open-ended questions, with a group of 46 women who regularly practice Qigong, to assess changes before, during and after a Qigong session.
Affect was measured on a group and individual level.
Investigators from the Department of Music at the University of Jyväskylä, in Jyväskylä, Finland conducted a two-armed, randomized, controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients who were also experiencing anxiety, in order to compare the impact of standard care versus Music Therapy (MT) in addition to Standard Care (SC), on symptoms.
The purpose of the study was to examine the mechanisms involved in any improvements that might result from Music Therapy, with particular focus on anterior frontotemporal resting state alpha and theta brain waves*.
Measures were taken at intake and after 3 months, using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, along with EEG results.
The research team found that music therapy significantly reduced both depression and anxiety symptoms.
In a small pilot study at the Pediatric Pulmonary Department of Armand Trousseau Hospital in Paris, France, investigators assessed the efficacy of medical hypnosis to reduce anticipatory anxiety and acclimatization time in children who are candidates for long-term ventilator use or NPPV (noninvasive positive pressure ventilation).
The hypnosis was performed by a trained nurse, and acclimatization time and long-term compliance with NPPV were evaluated.
Hypnosis was performed in nine children aged 2 to 15 years. Seven children had a high level of anticipatory anxiety because of a tracheotomy since birth (n=2), a history of maxillofacial surgery (n=2), severe dyspnea because of lung disease (n=2), and morbid obesity and depression (n=1), and two children with obstructive sleep apnea failed standard NPPV initiation.
Researchers from the Institute of Psychiatry at Kings College, London, UK, conducted a meta-analysis of Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT) to evaluate its short- and long-term effectiveness for treating depression.
Five databases were used (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CiNii). Investigators included all randomized, controlled trials with proper concealment and blinding of outcome assessment, for the clinical effectiveness of CCBT in adults (aged 18 and over) with depression.
Using Cohen's method, the standard mean difference (SMD) for the overall pooled effects across the included studies was estimated with a random effect model. The main outcome measure and the relative risk of dropout were included in the meta-analysis.
Investigators from the School of Medicine, University of Szeged in Szeged, Hungary, looked into the mechanism whereby hypnosis boosts human learning.
It is known in a general way that learning and memory depend on different cognitive systems that are related to separate and distinct brain structures. These systems interact, not only in cooperative ways to optimize performance, but also sometimes in competitive ways.
Previous studies have shown that by reducing the engagement of frontal lobe-mediated explicit attentional processes, improved performance can result in striatum-related procedural learning.
Researchers from the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge, UK, took a first step in identifying a cognitive marker for optimism that could provide a modifiable target for innovative interventions to promote optimism, which research has already shown can benefit general well-being and mental and physical health.
They hypothesized that the ability to generate vivid positive mental imagery of the future would be associated with an optimistic disposition.
A community sample of 237 participants completed a survey comprising measures of mental imagery and optimism, along with socio-demographic information.
from the Department of Psychology at the University of Vermont
looked at the recurrence of SAD (seasonal affective disorder or depression) in
the fall/winter, one year after receiving cognitive behavioral treatment
investigators had previously developed a group cognitive-behavioral therapy
approach (CBT) specifically targeted for SAD and tested its effectiveness in 2
pilot studies that compared outcomes with light therapy.
examines impact during the subsequent winter season (approximately 1 year after
acute treatment), following participants randomized to CBT, light therapy, and
a combination of both treatments. (N=69).
Researchers from Maastricht University, The Netherlands, compared the effects of CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) with IPT (Interpersonal Psychotherapy – a form of therapy that focuses on relationships) for treating panic disorder with agoraphobia.
Ninety-one adult patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder with agoraphobia were randomized to either a CBT condition or IPT. The primary outcome measured was panic attack frequency, along with a behavioral test.
Secondary outcomes were panic and agoraphobia severity, panic-related thoughts, interpersonal functioning and general psychopathology. Measures were taken at 0, 3 and 4 months (baseline, end of treatment and follow-up).