Researchers from the School of Psychology, University of Sussex in Falmer, UK, explored in this feasibility study whether a brief, online, mindfulness-based intervention could increase mindfulness and reduce perceived stress and anxiety/depression symptoms within a student population.
One hundred and four students were randomly assigned to either immediately start a two-week, self- guided online, mindfulness-based intervention or to a wait-list control.
Measures of mindfulness, perceived stress and anxiety/depression were taken, before and after the intervention period.
Researchers from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi assessed the efficacy of a brief yoga-based intervention on lowering stress and reducing inflammation in patients with chronic inflammatory disease in a preliminary study with a pre-post design.
Subjects were patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and others who suffered from being overweight or obese.
The program consisted of asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing exercises), stress management, group discussions, lectures, and individualized coaching.
Outcomes were changes from day 0 to day 10 in plasma cortisol and
β-endorphin to measure reductions in stress: and interleukin [IL]-6 and
tumor necrosis factor [TNF] - to measure reductions in inflammation.
Researchers from Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, NC, conducted a randomized controlled pilot comparing the viability of two mind-body workplace stress reduction programs - one therapeutic yoga-based and the other mindfulness-based - in order to set the stage for larger cost-effectiveness trials. Additionally, 2 delivery venues of the mindfulness-based program were evaluated (online vs. in-person).
Group differences were examined over time on perceived stress and secondary measures to clarify which variables to include in future studies: sleep quality, mood, pain levels, work productivity, mindfulness, blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate variability.
Investigators from Buenos Aires University examined psychoneuroendocrine responses to three different types of stress management programs. The first arm was training in deep breathing, relaxation response, meditation, and guided imagery (RRGI); the second arm was training in cognitive behavioral techniques (CB); and the third arm of the study included both RRGI and CB (RRGICB).
Fifty-two undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions or a control group. A pre/post experimental design was used, measuring anxiety, anger, hopelessness, neuroticism, respiration rate, and salivary cortisol levels.
Researchers from the Istituto Auxologico Italiano in Milan, Italy, tested an unlikely idea for easing commuter stress. They compared three kinds of specially prepared multimedia de-stressing programs designed for delivery over cell phones to stressed out commuters. (One can only hope that these were implemented when people were stuck in traffic and not driving..)
Researchers from the Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences at Chiba University in Japan investigated the impact of a 5-min stay in a hospital's rooftop forest on relaxation in elderly patients requiring care.
This was a within-subject, cross-sectional study where the participants were 30 elderly female patients requiring help in walking, with an average age of 81.
Responses were measured with a simplified emotional 7-point rating
scale, ranging from -3 to +3 for 5 pairs of emotions. This instrument
was derived from the two-question Whooley Depression Screen and was used
as a subjective indicator.
Researchers from the UC Davis Center for Mind and Brain in Davis, California, investigated the effects of a 3-month intensive meditation retreat on telomerase activity and 2 measures of perceived stress - . (Telomerase activity reverses cell aging and is a predictor of long-term cellular viability. Aging is accelerated by chronic stress)
The two measures of perceived stress were Perceived Control (associated with decreased stress) and Subjective Distress. In addition, the authors investigated whether two qualities developed by meditative practice - increased Mindfulness and Purpose in Life - accounted for retreat-related changes in the two stress-related variables and in telomerase activity.
Researchers from the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Houston evaluated a group treatment called "Imagery Rescripting and Exposure Therapy" (IRET) for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic posttraumatic nightmares. (There is a good summary of imagery rescripting tx here.)
IRET is a variant of a successful imagery rescripting treatment for civilian trauma-related nightmares that was modified to address the needs of the Veteran population.
Researchers from the Department of Psychology at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University in Bundoor, Australia presented the results of a small pilot study (N=19) that examined the efficacy of a 6-week, combined progressive relaxation technique (APRT) and guided imagery (GI) intervention, to help with the management of chronic pain.
Results indicated consistent and clinically significant improvement on pain (measures were the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analog scale), mental health (the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale), all domains of quality of life (the RAND-36 Health Survey), and sleep, for the treatment group only.
Researchers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University conducted a systematic review and critical appraisal of the effect of yoga on stress management in healthy adults.
A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) that assessed the effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults. Selected studies were classified according to the types of intervention, duration, outcome measures, and results. They were also qualitatively assessed based on Public Health Research, Education and Development standards.